Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

The Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework (PMHSIF) provides information on positive mental health outcomes and its associated risk and protective factors. Positive mental health is a state of well-being that allows us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face.

The PMHSIF contains a core set of indicators grouped by positive mental health outcomes and four key domains as listed below. Each indicator has a corresponding measure. For each measure in the PMHSIF, pan-Canadian estimates are available for adults aged 18 and older, and youth aged 12 –17 years, along with breakdowns by key demographic and socioeconomic variables. A Framework for children is under development.

For a quick overview of the PMHSIF click on any of the domains listed below. A list of all indicators and measures within the domain, for adults (aged 18 and older) and youth (aged 12 –17 years), with their corresponding pan-Canadian estimates, will unfold. Additionally, a detailed description of each measure can be obtained by clicking on the “Description” link next to each measure. The most current versions of the PMHSIF's Quick Stats are also available in a printer-friendly format (Youth and Adults).

The “Data Tool” button situated below brings you to a selection tool that provides access to all available data breakdowns for every indicator in the PMHSIF.

Use the PMHSIF Data Tool

Data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic will be included in the next edition of the PMHSIF. In the meantime, the PMHSIF Publications section lists surveillance products using alternate Canadian data sources to report on positive mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PMHSIF's Quick Stats is available in a printer-friendly format (PDF document). For an accessible equivalent, please use the table below.
PMHSIF's Quick Stats is also available in a printer-friendly format:

Quick Stats Overview

For more information about each indicator, click on the domains below:

Positive Mental Health Outcomes
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Self-Rated Mental Health Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report their mental health is "very good" or "excellent" 66.7% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report their mental health is "very good" or "excellent"
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report their mental health is "very good" or "excellent" 72.4% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report their mental health is "very good" or "excellent"
Happiness Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being usually "happy and interested in life" 75.5% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being usually "happy and interested in life"
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report being usually "happy and interested in life" 75.6% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report being usually "happy and interested in life"
Life Satisfaction Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general 39.6% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general
Adult (18+ years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) for population aged 18 years and older 8.1 CCHS (2019) DescriptionMean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) for population aged 18 years and older
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general 60.3% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general
Youth (12-17 years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) for population aged 12-17 years 8.7 CCHS (2019) DescriptionMean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) for population aged 12-17 years
Psychological Well-Being Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who have high psychological well-being 74.7% CCHS (2019) Positive Mental Health Rapid Response DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who have high psychological well-being
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high autonomy 80.8% CHSCY (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high autonomy
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high competence 84.3% CHSCY (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high competence
Social Well-Being Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a "very strong" or "somewhat strong" sense of belonging to their local community 68.4% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a "very strong" or "somewhat strong" sense of belonging to their local community
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high relatedness 89.3% CHSCY (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who have high relatedness
Individual Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Resilience Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA NA
Coping Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a high level of coping 81.9% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a high level of coping
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report a high level of coping 75.5% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years who report a high level of coping
Nurturing Childhood Environment Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report usually having meals together with their family "every day" or "most days" 83.0% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report usually having meals together with their family "every day" or "most days"
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions 69.5% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions
Control and Self-efficacy Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 41.6% GSS Social Networks (2008) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 45.0% GSS Social Networks (2008) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Violence Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report experiencing before the age of 15 any type of physical or sexual abuse and/or exposure to violence by an adult (18+ years) 34.0% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report experiencing before the age of 15 any type of physical or sexual abuse and/or exposure to violence by an adult (18+ years)
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months 3.9% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years 2.7% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months 27.7% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days 23.0% CSTADS (2018-2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days 12.0% CSTADS (2018-2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days
Health Status Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report their health is "very good" or "excellent" 60.1% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report their health is "very good" or "excellent"
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with moderate or serious disability, as per the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 22.4% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with moderate or serious disability, as per the Health Utilities Index (HUI)
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who report their health is "very good" or "excellent" 75.6% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who report their health is "very good" or "excellent"
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 with moderate or severe disability, as per the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 21.7% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 with moderate or severe disability, as per the Health Utilities Index (HUI)
Physical Activity Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18–79 years who meet physical activity guidelines by accumulating at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more 16.4% CHMS (2016-2017) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18–79 years who meet physical activity guidelines by accumulating at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day 30.9% CHMS (2016-2017) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day
Substance Use Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older whose reported alcohol consumption exceeds the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines for chronic health effects 16.6% CTADS (2017) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older whose reported alcohol consumption exceeds the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines for chronic health effects
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older whose reported alcohol consumption exceeds the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines for acute health effects 43.1% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older whose reported alcohol consumption exceeds the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines for acute health effects
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 7–12 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days 14.3% CSTADS (2018-2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 7–12 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report using cannabis at least once a week in the last 30 days 5.4% CSTADS (2018-2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 7-12 students who report using cannabis at least once a week in the last 30 days
Spirituality Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" to the way they live their life 61.8% GSS Family (2017) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" to the way they live their life
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 15-17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" to the way they live their life 48.4% GSS Family (2017) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 15-17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" to the way they live their life
Family Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Family Relationships Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report it is "very easy" or "easy" to talk to their parents about things that really bother them 84.1% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report it is "very easy" or "easy" to talk to their parents about things that really bother them
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6–10 students who have high communication in their family 58.3% HBSC (2013-2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6–10 students who have high communication in their family
Parenting Style Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their parents/guardians trust them 77.0% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their parents/guardians trust them
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their parents/guardians expect too much from them 27.4% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report their parents/guardians expect too much from them
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs 39.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs
Adult (18+ years) Among population aged 18 years and older with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs, percentage (%) who report that their life is affected "some" or "a lot" by their family member's problems 35.6% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionAmong population aged 18 years and older with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs, percentage (%) who report that their life is affected "some" or "a lot" by their family member's problems
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs 29.4% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs
Youth (12-17 years) Among population aged 15–17 years with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs, percentage (%) who report that their life is affected "some" or "a lot" by their family member’s problems 26.5% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionAmong population aged 15–17 years with one or more family members who have problems with their emotions, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs, percentage (%) who report that their life is affected "some" or "a lot" by their family member’s problems
Household Composition Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living in a lone parent household 8.9% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living in a lone parent household
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living alone 16.6% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living alone
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living with a spouse or partner 69.4% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older living with a spouse or partner
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years living in a lone parent household 19.5% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years living in a lone parent household
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years living in a two-parent household 69.6% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years living in a two-parent household
Household Income Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of the total population living below low-income cut-offs, after tax 6.5% CIS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of the total population living below low-income cut-offs, after tax
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs, after tax 5.1% CIS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs, after tax
Community Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Community Involvement Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older that are a member or participant of at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association, or club 63.4% GSS Social Identity (2013) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older that are a member or participant of at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association, or club
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization 86.7% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization
Social Networks Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having no close friends or family members 6.1% GSS Social Identity (2013) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having no close friends or family members
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having between 1 and 5 close friends or family members 57.1% GSS Social Identity (2013) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having between 1 and 5 close friends or family members
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having 6 or more close friends or family members 36.8% GSS Social Identity (2013) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report having 6 or more close friends or family members
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong 63.9% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who have friends to share their happy and sad feelings with 61.1% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who have friends to share their happy and sad feelings with
Social Support Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with a high level of perceived social support 94.3% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with a high level of perceived social support
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years with a high level of perceived social support 96.7% CCHS (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12-17 years with a high level of perceived social support
School Environment Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who "agree" or "strongly agree" that they feel they belong at their school 59.6% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who "agree" or "strongly agree" that they feel they belong at their school
Neighbourhood Social Environment Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 88.5% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a big problem" or "a moderate problem" 5.3% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a big problem" or "a moderate problem"
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live 59.5% HBSC (2018) DescriptionPercentage (%) of grade 6-10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 90.4% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a big problem" or "a moderate problem" 6.3% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a big problem" or "a moderate problem"
Neighbourhood Built Environment Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that their neighbourhood has several free or low cost recreation facilities 87.4% CCHS (2017) Barriers to Physical Activity Rapid Response DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who report that their neighbourhood has several free or low cost recreation facilities
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who report that their neighbourhood has several free or low cost recreation facilities 89.5% CCHS (2017) Barriers to Physical Activity Rapid Response DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who report that their neighbourhood has several free or low cost recreation facilities
Work Environment Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of employed population aged 18–75 years experiencing high job strain 14.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionPercentage (%) of employed population aged 18–75 years experiencing high job strain
Society Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Inequality Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA NA
Discrimination and Stigma Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past 5 years based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance 11.5% GSS Victimization (2014) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past 5 years based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance
Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with a mental health problem who report having been affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem 21.0% CCHS Mental Health (2012) DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 18 years and older with a mental health problem who report having been affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem
Youth (12-17 years) Percentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance 39.1% CCHS (2013) Discrimination Rapid Response DescriptionPercentage (%) of population aged 12–17 years who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance
Political Participation Adult (18+ years) Percentage (%) of registered electors who voted in the 2019 federal election 67.0% Elections Canada (2019) DescriptionPercentage (%) of registered electors who voted in the 2019 federal election

Notes

  • Data Sources (Abbreviations): Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS); Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS-MH); Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS); Canadian Health Survey on Children and Youth (CHSCY); Canadian Income Survey (CIS); Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CSTADS); Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS); General Social Survey (GSS); Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC).
  • "In development": refers to measures that are under development either because a data source is currently not available or more research has to be done in order to identify a promising measure and data source.
  • Suggested Citation (Adults): Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research (2022). Positive Mental Health Indicator Framework Quick Statistics, adults (18 years of age and older), Canada, 2022 Edition. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada.
  • Suggested Citation (Youth): Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research (2022). Positive Mental Health Indicator Framework Quick Statistics, youth (12 to 17 years of age), Canada, 2022 Edition. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada.
  • For questions or comments, please contact us at: infobase@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Date modified:
2022-03-10