Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

The Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework (PMHSIF) provides information on positive mental health outcomes and its associated risk and protective factors. Positive mental health is a state of well-being that allows us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face.

The PMHSIF contains a core set of indicators grouped by positive mental health outcomes and four key domains as listed below. Each indicator has a corresponding measure. For each measure in the PMHSIF, pan-Canadian estimates are available for adults aged 18 and older, and youth aged 12 –17 years, along with breakdowns by key demographic and socioeconomic variables. A Framework for children is under development. The indicators identified in the PMHSIF are the same for each age group; however, the corresponding measure does differ according to the age group.

For a quick overview of the PMHSIF click on any of the domains listed below. A list of all indicators and measures within the domain, for adults (aged 18 and older) and youth (aged 12 –17 years), with their corresponding pan-Canadian estimates, will unfold. Additionally, a detailed description of each measure can be obtained by clicking on the “Description” link next to each measure. The most current versions of the PHMSIF's Quick Stats are also available in a printer-friendly format (Youth and Adults).

The “Data Tool” button situated below brings you to a selection tool that provides access to all available data breakdowns for every indicator in the PMHSIF.

Use the PMHSIF Data Tool

PMHSIF's Quick Stats is available in a printer-friendly format (PDF document). For an accessible equivalent, please use the table below.
PMHSIF's Quick Stats is also available in a printer-friendly format:

Quick Stats Overview

For more information about each indicator, click on the domains below:

Positive Mental Health Outcomes
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Self-Rated Mental Health Adult (18+ years) % of population who self-rate their mental health as "excellent" or "very good" 69.9% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who self-rate their mental health as "excellent" or "very good"
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who self-rate their mental health as "excellent" or "very good" 75.9% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who self-rate their mental health as "excellent" or "very good"
Happiness Adult (18+ years) % of population who report being happy "every day" or "almost every day" 85.9% CCHS (2015) Description% of population who report being happy "every day" or "almost every day"
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who report being usually "happy and interested in life" 79.3% CCHS (2015) Description% of population who report being usually "happy and interested in life"
Life Satisfaction Adult (18+ years) % of population who report being satisfied with life "every day" or "almost every day" 87.1% CCHS (2015) Description% of population who report being satisfied with life "every day" or "almost every day"
Adult (18+ years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) 8.1 CCHS (2017) DescriptionMean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale)
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general 61.0% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general
Youth (12-17 years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) among grade 6–10 students 7.3 HBSC (2013–2014) DescriptionMean life satisfaction rating (0-10 scale) among grade 6–10 students
Psychological Well-Being Adult (18+ years) % of population who have high psychological well-being 75.2% CCHS (2015) Description% of population who have high psychological well-being
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who have high autonomy 73.0% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who have high autonomy
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who have high competence 78.4% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who have high competence
Social Well-Being Adult (18+ years) % of population who report that they "very strongly" or "somewhat strongly" belong to their local community 68.1% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who report that they "very strongly" or "somewhat strongly" belong to their local community
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who have high relatedness 81.8% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who have high relatedness
Individual Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Resilience Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Coping Adult (18+ years) % of population who report a high level of coping 56.9% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population who report a high level of coping
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of coping 43.3% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of coping
Nurturing Childhood Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report having dinner together with their family five or more times per week 69.8% HBSC (2013–2014) Description % of grade 6–10 students who report having dinner together with their family five or more times per week
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions 74.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions
Control and Self-Efficacy Adult (18+ years) % of population who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 41.6% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description% of population who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 45.0% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description% of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Violence Adult (18+ years) % of population who experienced any of three types of child abuse before age 15 (physical abuse, sexual abuse or exposure to intimate partner violence) 34.0% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who experienced any of three types of child abuse before age 15 (physical abuse, sexual abuse or exposure to intimate partner violence)
Adult (18+ years) % of population who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months 3.9% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months
Adult (18+ years) % of population who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years 2.7% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months 28.3% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days 23.5% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days 13.2% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days
Health Status Adult (18+ years) % of population who self-rate their health as "excellent" or "very good" 59.9% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who self-rate their health as "excellent" or "very good"
Adult (18+ years) % of population with no or mild disability 68.5% CCHS (2015) Description% of population with no or mild disability
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who self-rate their health as "excellent" or "very good" 75.6% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who self-rate their health as "excellent" or "very good"
Youth (12-17 years) % of population with no or mild disability 70.7% CCHS (2015) Description% of population with no or mild disability
Physical Activity Adult (18+ years) % of population who are "active" or "moderately active" during their leisure-time based on self-reported data 69.4% CCHS (2017) Description% of population who are "active" or "moderately active" during their leisure-time based on self-reported data
Adult (18+ years) % of population aged 18–79 years who accumulate at least 150 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous physical activity in 10-minute bouts based on measured data 16.4% CHMS (2016–2017) Description% of population aged 18–79 years who accumulate at least 150 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous physical activity in 10-minute bouts based on measured data
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day 30.9% CHMS (2016–2017) Description% of population who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day
Substance Use Adult (18+ years) % of population whose reported alcohol consumption falls within the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines 83.4% CTADS (2017) Description% of population whose reported alcohol consumption falls within the low risk alcohol drinking guidelines
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 9 and 10 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks (4 or more for girls) on one occasion, once a month or more in the past year 17.7% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 9 and 10 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks (4 or more for girls) on one occasion, once a month or more in the past year
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report drinking alcohol every week or more 6.5% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report drinking alcohol every week or more
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who have used marijuana or cannabis in the past 12 months 16.7% CSTADS (2016–2017) Description% of grade 7–12 students who have used marijuana or cannabis in the past 12 months
Spirituality Adult (18+ years) % of population who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" in their daily life 62.7% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" in their daily life
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" in their daily life 45.7% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population aged 15–17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are "very important" or "somewhat important" in their daily life
Family Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Family Relationships Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report it is "very easy" or "easy" to talk to their parents about things that really bother them 83.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report it is "very easy" or "easy" to talk to their parents about things that really bother them
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who have high communication in their family 58.3% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who have high communication in their family
Parenting Style Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents trust them 77.3% HBSC (2013–2014) Description % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents trust them
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents expect too much from them 28.7% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report their parents expect too much from them
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Adult (18+ years) % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs 39.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs
Adult (18+ years) % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drug, who report that their life is affected "a lot" or "some" by their family member's problems 35.6% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drug, who report that their life is affected "a lot" or "some" by their family member's problems
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs 29.4% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected "a lot" or "some" by their family member’s problems 26.5% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected "a lot" or "some" by their family member’s problems
Household Composition Adult (18+ years) % of population living in a lone parent household 8.8% CCHS (2017) Description% of population living in a lone parent household
Adult (18+ years) % of population living alone 16.1% CCHS (2017) Description% of population living alone
Adult (18+ years) % of population living with a spouse or partner 70.5% CCHS (2017) Description% of population living with a spouse or partner
Youth (12-17 years) % of population living in a lone parent household 18.7% CCHS (2017) Description% of population living in a lone parent household
Youth (12-17 years) % of population living in a two-parent household 71.1% CCHS (2017) Description% of population living in a two-parent household
Household Income Adult (18+ years) % of the total Canadian population below low-income cut-offs after tax 8.8% SLID (2011) Description% of the total Canadian population below low-income cut-offs after tax
Youth (12-17 years) % of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs after tax 8.5% CIS (2014) Description% of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs after tax
Community Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Community Involvement Adult (18+ years) % of population that are a member or participant of at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association, or club 63.4% GSS Social Identity (2013) Description% of population that are a member or participant of at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association, or club
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization 88.9% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization
Social Networks Adult (18+ years) % of population who report having no close friends or family members 6.1% GSS Social Identity (2013) Description% of population who report having no close friends or family members
Adult (18+ years) % of population who report having between 1 and 5 close friends or family members 57.1% GSS Social Identity (2013) Description% of population who report having between 1 and 5 close friends or family members
Adult (18+ years) % of population who report having 6 or more close friends or family members 36.8% GSS Social Identity (2013) Description% of population who report having 6 or more close friends or family members
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong 74.3% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who have friends to share joys and sorrows with 79.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who have friends to share joys and sorrows with
Social Support Adult (18+ years) % of population who report high level of perceived social support 94.2% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population who report high level of perceived social support
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a high level of perceived social support 95.4% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population aged 15–17 years with a high level of perceived social support
School Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they feel they belong at their school 63.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report they feel they belong at their school
Neighbourhood Social Environment Adult (18+ years) % of population who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 88.5% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Adult (18+ years) % of population who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a very big problem" or "a fairly big problem" 5.3% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a very big problem" or "a fairly big problem"
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live 60.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 90.4% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a very big problem" or "a fairly big problem" 6.3% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is "a very big problem" or "a fairly big problem"
Neighbourhood Built Environment Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report there are places such as recreation centres, parks and shopping centres to spend free time in the area where they live 74.2% HBSC (2013–2014) Description% of grade 6–10 students who report there are places such as recreation centres, parks and shopping centres to spend free time in the area where they live
Work Environment Adult (18+ years) % of employed population aged 18-75 experiencing high job strain 14.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of employed population aged 18-75 experiencing high job strain
Society Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Inequality Adult (18+ years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Youth (12-17 years) IN DEVELOPMENT NA NA
Discrimination and Stigma Adult (18+ years) % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past 5 years based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance 11.5% GSS Victimization (2014) Description% of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past 5 years based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance
Adult (18+ years) % of population with a mental health problem who report having been affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem 21.0% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description% of population with a mental health problem who report having been affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem
Youth (12-17 years) % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance 39.1% CCHS (2013) Discrimination Rapid Response Description% of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance
Political Participation Adult (18+ years) % of registered electors who voted in the 2015 federal election 68.3% Elections Canada (2015) Description% of registered electors who voted in the 2015 federal election

Notes

  • Data Sources (Abbreviations): Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS); Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS-MH); Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS); Canadian Student Tobacco Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CSTADS); Canadian Tobacco Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS); General Social Survey (GSS); Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children (HBSC); Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID);
  • "In development": refers to measures that are under development either because a data source is currently not available or more research has to be done in order to identify a promising measure and data source.
  • Suggested Citation (Adults): Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research (2019). Positive Mental Health Indicator Framework Quick Statistics, adults (18 years of age and older), Canada, 2019 Edition. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada.
  • Suggested Citation (Youth): Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research (2019). Positive Mental Health Indicator Framework Quick Statistics, youth (12 to 17 years of age), Canada, 2019 Edition. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada.
  • For questions or comments, please contact us at: phac.infobase.aspc@canada.ca
Date modifier:
2019-07-18